Scientific communications

Scientific communications2018-12-01T20:01:15+00:00

El objetivo de este Congreso es proporcionar un foro internacional a los académicos, investigadores, profesionales y estudiantes para discutir los aspectos de las tendencias, retos, competitividad e innovación en destinos insulares así como para promover las relaciones multidisciplinares de colaboración en el ámbito turístico y académico.

Las ponencias científicas investigan las características y las tendencias actuales de la esfera turística para ayudar a conocer de forma más profunda este importante sector productivo. Las ponencias, en castellano, inglés y francés, se recogen en un libro digital de más de 600 páginas con su ISBN correspondiente. La exposición de datos y las conclusiones ayudan tanto a empresarios y a profesionales que ejercen en el ámbito práctico, como a las entidades públicas responsables, a tomar decisiones y a adoptar estrategias para crecer y atraer a un cliente cada vez más exigente.

CONGRESO INTERNACIONAL DE DESTINOS TURÍSTICOS INTELIGENTES

SALA GUAYADEQUE
MODERADORA: DRA. PINO MEDINO BRITO

• CHAITANYA SUÁREZ ROJAS
• YEN E. LAM GONZÁLEZ
• DEVORA PEÑA MARTEL
• CARMELO LEÓN
• JAVIER DE LEÓN LEDESMA

In tourism, the entrepreneurial internationalization is considered a measure of the development of the industry and a key driver of innovation, competitiveness and the enhancement of tourism image. In nautical tourism, research is still scarce to support firms´ internationalization processes and explain their success. This work focuses on analyzing factors ensuring internationalization success in nautical tourism SMEs. As result of surveying a sample of 60 firms´ owners of six different islands in the Macaronesia Region, we provide up to date information about motivations, conditions and barriers to the internationalization, and analyze regional differences within the sector. The results are of great importance for nautical destinations´ managers and SMEs, in the support of more efficient strategies of internationalization thus contributing to the sustainability of the sector.

• OSWALDO LEDESMA GONZÁLEZ
• MOISÉS R. SIMANCAS CRUZ

In the context of the renovation of mature tourist destinations, the renovation of the tourist accommodation offer is essential, being this one of its main assets, and a contribution to the improvement of its competitive positioning. In addition, housing renovation is necessary to adapt the product offered to the requirements of the demand side, so that new concepts and ideas can be incorporated not only in strictly edificatory (physical) terms, but also in matters related to the management and services provided. In the Canary Islands, the Plans for Modernization, Improvement and Increase of Competitiveness have become the main instrument on which to base public policies for tourism renovation. Thus, this research analyses the perception of the hotelier on the efficacy that these plans have on the renovation of the tourist accommodation offer. The tourist area of Puerto de la Cruz (Tenerife, Spain) has been selected as a case study.

• LUCÍA SANTANA CEDEÑA
• JOSE P. SUÁREZ RIVERO
• SERGIO RAMOS RAMOS

The UNE 166.002 standard allows the implementation of an R & D & I Management System to canalize the projects and activities of this nature, improving the chances of success. Its application in companies has yielded positive results. However, the question arises whether the standard is adaptable to the hotel sector in its entirety or if there are nuances a question based on the results obtained from a real case of application.
The advantages and disadvantages when facing a hotel chain for its adoption are specified, extracting as a general conclusion that the standard facilitates although it produces challenges in certain aspects for the services sector.

• MOAMEN EL-SHERBINY
• TERESA AGUIAR
• CHRISTIAN GONZÁLEZ

Most of the people are relying on digital feedbacks by observing reviews posted on travel portal and online reviews play an important role that affect online bookings in the hospitality industry. Also customers spend time reading reviews which might affect their decision making. Some papers underline the role of review sentiments in perceived helpfulness and findings have shown that reviews written by people who demonstrate extreme sentiments are considered more valuable when it comes to catch the attention of new customers.
Through a meta-analysis of the last 20 years of research in Customer Sentiment and online customer ratings, we have found that most of the studies are focused in the importance of customer sentiment in the review but, however, we found a gap in the literature as it has only been used to find out how the sentiments of customer reviews can identify the importance of the review. But, no study has focused on finding how such reviews can affect the online ratings.

• ANTONIA MERCEDES GARCÍA CABRERA
• MARÍA GRACIA GARCÍA SOTO
• FRANCISCO JAVIER GARCÍA RODRÍGUEZ

• FÁTIMA SELENA GIL CÁRDENES
• ANTONIO GONZÁLEZ MOLINA
• JUAN M. BENÍTEZ DEL ROSARIO

This document contains an investigation on Accessible Tourism. The main purpose has been to identify and know the current situation of the Accessible Tourism market, the existing legal regulations in national and international scopes that regulate and protect it, as well as the main infrastructures, activities and services offered by specialized accommodation in this type of market and its accessibility and inclusion in some hotels in the Canary Islands (Spain), highlighting the strengths and opportunities, the visibility in the diversification and specialization of the tourist offer, as well as transferring experiences and knowledge to other possible tourist destinations. In the collection of information and for the fieldwork, the case study methodology was used, and we investigated the offers and experiences of two accessible hotels in the Canary Islands, the Hotel Mar y Sol (Tenerife) and Nautilus (Lanzarote), that we consider have implemented a tourism success management model.

• RITA NEREIDA TAISMA
• SILVIA SOSA CABRERA

The objective of this research is to know the characteristics of entrepreneurship in the tourism sector in Spain. Specifically, the aim is to compare if there are differences in the profile of the entrepreneur in tourism and in the business initiatives that are launched in said sector in terms of gender. To this end, we have worked with the 2013 GEM database, and the analysis was made of the profile of the entrepreneurs, the characteristics of the entrepreneurial initiatives, the satisfaction it provides and about the opinion of the experts.

• M.ª SELENE NUEZ SUÁREZ
• SILVIA SOSA CABRERA

The aim is to analyse the characteristics of the Enterprise, comparing the destinations of Spain and Indonesia. Indonesia is a country economically oriented towards efficiency and, therefore, developing towards a service-based economy. For its part, Spain is part of the group of countries oriented to innovation, with a clear focus on the services sector. In this sense, the difference between the two countries Will allow us to know if there are significant differences between the profiles of the entrepreneurs and the characteristics of the initiatives that star the hospitality subsector and analyse if the entrepreneurial ecosystem favours hospitality entrepreneurship in both contexts.

• PAULA PÉREZ CABALLÉ
• ANTONIO GONZÁLEZ MOLINA
• JUAN M. BENÍTEZ DEL ROSARIO

Analysis of the sports event of the popular race known internationally under the name of the “Trangrancanaria”, which has been held since 2003 to the present, 2018, its participants cross the island of Gran Canaria from North to South, in various categories and It is part of one of the most important and significant resistance tests in Spain, of great prestige and international recognition. The present work, through the “case study” studies, analyzes and assesses entrepreneurship through the main actors, as well as the tourism promotion that it puts into value and has a direct impact on the island of Gran Canaria, as mark of quality and excellence of a sports tourism destination. A historical analysis of the “Trangrancanaria” is carried out, as well as the achievements and objectives achieved during its development. It is an extraordinary sporting event that drives the brand of Gran Canaria, promoting another form of tourism.

• JOSÉ ALBERTO MARTÍNEZ GONZÁLEZ
• EDUARDO PARRA LÓPEZ
• ALMUDENA BARRIENTOS BÁEZ

Electronic commerce in the tourism sector has experienced rapid growth in recent years. However, due to competition in the market, the demands of consumers, the inherent risk of e-commerce and the intangible nature of the tourism product, it is necessary to better understand the consumer’s online purchasing behavior in this sector. The aim of this work is the study of the external and internal variables of the subject that influence the intent of online purchase and the e-loyalty of young people, two variables that have been poorly studied jointly. Using structural equations (PLS) it has been generated a causal model that allows explaining the formation of intent and online loyalty through two external variables (site design and eWOM) and two internal (confidence and satisfaction). The results show that the weight of the internal variables is greater than the external variables. Significant gender differences have been found.

• JOSÉ ALBERTO MARTÍNEZ GONZÁLEZ
• EDUARDO PARRA LÓPEZ
• ALMUDENA BARRIENTOS BÁEZ

The aim of this work is the study of the influence of the Website personalization and the site on purchase intent and in the e-loyalty of young people. Making use of the equations structural (PLS) method it has been generated a causal model that is fair, realistic and practical to be used by the tourist industry. The model allows to explain the formation of the intention and the e-loyalty through the personalization of the site design, the first impression of the user, the design and satisfaction. The results show that the dynamic design of the website and the satisfaction influence more than the technical design on purchasing intention and e-loyalty. The results also notes the positive attitude towards e-commerce by young people, their high usage, as well as its high potential online influence and purchasing. Finally, the existence of gender differences that are significant has been revealed.

• BEATRIZ DEL RÍO GUERRA
• ANTONIO GONZÁLEZ MOLINA
• JUAN M. BENÍTEZ DEL ROSARIO
• AGUSTÍN SÁNCHEZ MEDINA

This research work is based primarily on identifying the main elements that characterize the so-called “Generation Y”, “Millennials”, “Generation Next”, in the field of tourism, to know the motivations and interests of existing demands to perform travel, the use of transport services (land, sea and air), accommodation, travel agencies, leisure and recreation activities at the destination, the use of internet, social networks at the time of purchasing contracts. For the study, the research methodology of documentary and bibliographic review or “narrative review” has been used. In the end we have obtained some results and conclusions that we believe could serve as guidelines and general interest for the tourism sector.

• BEATRIZ DEL RÍO GUERRA
• ANTONIO GONZÁLEZ MOLINA
• AGUSTÍN SÁNCHEZ MEDINA
• JUAN M. BENÍTEZ DEL ROSARIO

The concept of tourists and their buying behaviour at the time of making a trip has taken a 360º turn. Technology and digital empathy largely determine their habits, trends and scale of values, leading to the creation of an important niche market that is hard to ignore: millennials. The literary topic “carpe diem” is perhaps the expression that best defines this sociodemographic group. Live the moment, look for emotions, create experiences, leaving in the background the concern of tomorrow. However, we must not forget that we are faced with users who spend most of their day connected and distracted pending the updates of social networks, causing a greater or lesser distance from reality. The use of the Internet is no longer limited to the five phases of the travel consumption ecosystem according to the Brain Trust Tourist Barometer (dreaming, planning, booking, experiencing and sharing), but this new trend of travelers uses their smartphone to continue enjoying and reserving all the services during the trip, besides wanting to share all your experiences live and get a spontaneous reaction.

SALA BALOS
MODERADORA: DRA. LIDIA HERNÁNDEZ LÓPEZ
• RITA CARBALLO FUENTES
• CARMELO J. LEÓN GONZÁLEZ
• MAGDALENA CARBALLO FUENTES

The present study establishes the relationships between the perceived risk in terrorism, the image of the destination and the behavior of the visitor. To do this, it performs a multiple regression analysis through a system of structural equations (SEM) to establish the causal relationships under study. Subsequently, the moderating effect of the destination is analyzed in these causal relationships. The results obtained help the managers and business of the destination to establish promotional campaigns and marketing strategies that help to improve the projected image of the tourist destination and to be able to influence long-term decision making of tourists.

• RITA CARBALLO FUENTES
• CARMELO J. LEÓN GONZÁLEZ
• MAGDALENA CARBALLO FUENTES

This paper analyses the formation of the tourist image based on artistically recreated local nature icons. It focuses on the island of Lanzarote, a destination with its development based on promoting an environmental image founded on the creation of a network of multifunctional, high quality art, culture and tourism centres exhibiting artistic recreation of its unique environmental assets. The methodology utilizes a questionnaire (n=453) structural equations modelling approach in which the overall image is related with on the image of the environmental conditions and the image of the artistically recreated centres. Results show that the destination’s image is significantly grounded on the image of the art, culture and tourism centres using art based on Lanzarote’s natural assets. They suggest that destinations have relevant opportunities to artistically enhance natural assets to improve their tourist image and marketing, that quality multi-functional visitor centres can be important within a sustainable tourism policy, and part of the emerging breadth of approaches taken by sustainable tourism marketing.

• ISABEL JIMÉNEZ RODRÍGUEZ
• MOISÉS SIMANCAS CRUZ
• MARÍA PILAR PEÑARRUBIA ZARAGOZA
• GERALDINE FORGIONE MARTÍN
• DAVID SUÁREZ PERERA
• LUCÍA PALMERO DEL ROSARIO
• ELÍSABET PADRÓN CANDELARIO
• OSWALDO LEDESMA GONZÁLEZ
• CARLOS ALBERTO GREIFEMBERG

The renewal of the consolidated tourist areas of the Canary coast has been proposed as a structural element of public policy. However, the Canarian policy of renewal of tourist accommodation in coastal areas has not been considered as a process. The objective of this paper is address the degree of effectiveness of the regeneration strategy of Puerto de la Cruz in relation to the renewal of the tourist accommodation offer. The research work is structured around a database and a geographic information system of the accommodations renewed in the last five years in Puerto de la Cruz.

• TATIANA DAVID-NEGRE
• ARMINDA ALMEIDA-SANTANA
• JUAN M. HERNÁNDEZ
• SERGIO MORENO-GIL

This paper analyses the use of the main e-tourism platforms by European tourists. A computer-aided Web interview (CAWI) was used to conduct the research in 19 European countries to 13,243 tourists. Through the methodology of Social Network Analysis (SNA), the study focuses on detecting key network players (social media, OTAs, etc.) in the e-tourism ecosystem. The final sample was of 13,243 tourists and 473 platforms. Centrality degree and betweenness was analysed for each country. This study helps understand in a novel way the behaviour of European tourists when using e-tourism platforms to choose their travel destination.

• TATIANA DAVID-NEGRE
• ARMINDA ALMEIDA-SANTANA
• JUAN M. HERNÁNDEZ
• SERGIO MORENO-GIL

The sharing economy has emerged as an alternative of suppliers of goods and services traditionally provided by long-established industries and driven by the development and proliferation of platforms. Since its inception, the tourism industry has presented itself as one of the sectors that has allowed it to grow more and in which the sharing economy has had a greater impact. Thus, the objective of this work is twofold. In the first place, it explains the platform economy and the role played by the sharing economy in this network of platforms that tries to dominate the tourist market. Second, it analyzes the differences in the use of the platform economy, between the generation Y and the total number of tourists. Finally, the implications for the future of the platform economy in the tourism industry are discussed. Applying a comprehensive analysis with 13,243 tourists from 19 European countries, the study provides interesting recommendations for destinations with a view to better designing marketing activities across different European countries.

• JUSTYNA SALAMON

The main objective of this article is the analysis of the influence of migratory flows (especially from Morocco) on the internal policy of Spain (the labor, the tourism and the legislation sectors). On the other hand, the phenomenon of halal tourism is observed. Finally, we must distinguish the problem with jihadism among the young people from Morocco. The author describes the current situation and the scenarios for the future. Through the comparison method, the similarities and differences between Moroccan immigrants and Moroccan tourists are presented. In summary, we can conclude that the influence of immigrants on the labor market and security in Spain is much more important than the influence of Moroccan-Muslim tourists in the halal tourism sector.

• EUNICE DUARTE
• PAULO NUNES

According to the World Tourism Organization (1999), the development of tourism in the perspective of sustainability presupposes actions that are socially just, economically viable and ecologically correct, that is, that meet the economic, social and ecological needs of society.
Tourism stopped being a merely economic activity, adopting several guidelines from sustainable development, being called “sustainable tourism. The way to consume tourism products has also undergone changes, being based on the consumption of experiences of aplace.
This article intends to make a bibliographical review of these concepts, trying to understand how and what is sustainable tourism, and how it contributes to tourism experiences, based on the evolution of the concept of sustainable development and creative experiences in spacerural.

• EUNICE DUARTE
• PAULO NUNES

The development of cities increases the competitiveness between them, which side makes it urgent to observe and analyze this phenomenon in less urbanized territories, as is the case of low density areas, especially in the Alentejo. The disparities between the territories of the coastal strip and the interior of the country, accentuate the need to rethink the latter. In this context, Barrancos Arronches, Marvão and Castelo de Vide are located in the Alentejo region, they are of the territories with less population, being still considered rainanos, feeling therefore the fragilities of the interior of the country, especially as far as the attractiveness is desired to capture visitors, or to fix its population.
The present study seeks to address and evidence differentiation factors, identifying intelligent practices in the Barrancos Arronches, Marvão and Castelo de Vide territories. For this, a qualitative methodological approach was used to an exploratory study, aiming to present a set of strategic development axes, in order to make the fragilities into competitive advantages, adding value, increasing the attractiveness and leading to the fixation of publics and agents. In this way, the study intends to approach territorial marketing as a tool in the planning of intelligent strategies, more specifically, to create a relationship between territorial marketing and intelligent cities in the low density territories of Alentejo.

• RACHID OUMLIL
• HICHAM FAOUZI
• ABDELOUAHAB EL BOUKHARI

Tourism industry as a key component of the economic arena has been the subject to multitude innovations. Innovation within this industry received an important attention and considered the main source of competitiveness and value creation for all actors belonging to it. Open innovation (Chesbrough, 2003) considered as the new paradigm of innovation arguing many benefits for industrial firms while still in the primary stage for the tourism area. Professionals are more interested by the impacts, benefits and contribution of this neologism that is still considered fuzzy to them. Hence, the main objective of this communication would be identifying relevant benefits for the tourism industry and categorize them following many criteria. To do, authors referred to sixteen relevant articles displaying open innovation in tourism during the last nine years (i.e. 2010-2018). Afterwards, a metaanalysis was conducted using NVivo 12 software. Results highlight six relevant interrelated categories (i.e. strategical, managerial, operational, interaction, knowledge, service) of open innovation benefits in the tourism sector.

• CLAUDIA BENÍTEZ NÚÑEZ
• LIDIA HERNÁNDEZ LÓPEZ
• FRANCISCA R. ÁLAMO VERA
• PETRA DE SAÁ PÉREZ

En este artículo se identifican las competencias adquiridas por los estudiantes del Grado en Turismo de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria durante la realización del programa Erasmus+ y su relación con las expectativas de empleabilidad. Para ello se realizó un estudio empírico sobre la base de la información proporcionada por los 188 estudiantes de la Facultad de Economía, Empresa y Turismo de la ULPGC que participaron en dicho programa desde el 2014 hasta 2016. Los resultados alcanzados confirman que los estudiantes adquieren una serie de competencias genéricas que influyen en la percepción de los estudiantes sobre las oportunidades de empleo que tendrán en el futuro.

• DALAI PERDOMO PÉREZ
• SONIA MARÍA SUÁREZ ORTEGA
• ANTONIA MERCEDES GARCÍA CABRERA

• LAHFIDI ABDELHAQ
• OUTOLBA LAHOUCINE
• HOUSSAS M’BAREK

This work is a continuation of the discussions initiated by Mariani & Borghi, in 2018 and Mellinas, María-dolores, Jesús, & García, in 2015 on the effect of Booking.com rating system. Works on this topic has demonstrated the flaw of this system and more particularly the risk that generates the use of data provided by this rating system as a basis for academic researches Works. The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of Booking.com on the commercial profitability of hotels in Morocco. The expected results of the study do not reveal a sufficient impact level to conclude a significant influence of Booking.com on the profitability of small and medium hotels (SMH) in Morocco.

• MARÍA YOLANDA FERNÁNDEZ RAMOS
• PILAR CABEZAS PASCUAL
• CARLOS BELLOSO MARTÍN
• LUIS ÁNGEL DIEZ MARTÍN

Seasonal adjustment marks one of the objectives to fulfill in all tourism development plans. This fact has promoted the emergence of an inland tourism that is gaining more and more followers, and which allows administrations to find an economic development and social transformation engine, with an eye to avoid the depopulation of rural areas as well as to rescue ancient crafts, popular architectures and antique traditions. In this sense, historical reenactments have emerged as an important tool for both the recovery of intangible heritage, and for local history and culture dissemination.
However, the lack of a proper definition of reenactments as a tourism product, the desire to find the keys to their success, and the need to implement this product in other locations, give meaning to this research work, whose objective is to generate a successful tourism model, based on the historical reenactments existing in the Autonomous Community of Aragon as its main resource.

SALA ARIDANE
MODERADOR: DR. AZIZ SAIR
• FARIDA BOUACHRAOUI
• AYOUB DEHBI
• MOHAMED FAROUK OUAHNI

El turismo cultural es un segmento que importa para el diseño de un producto turístico. Pero la orientación de las ofertas de otros segmentos turísticos hacia la experiencia en los años noventa tuvo repercusiones e implicaciones sobre las esperas de la misma clientela potencial en este dominio. Para que Igoudar del Sur marroquí tengan éxito sobre el mercado, es necesario acondicionar el potencial que constituyen. Esta puesta en escena debe orientarse hacia las necesidades y los intereses de los grupos blancos bien determinados. ¿ A? N de explicar el principio de la orientación hacia La experiencia, algunos ejemplos de puesta en escena serán presentados a continuación. Para responder a las nuevas aspiraciones de los clientes que quieren vivir experiencias únicas, hay que redescubrir o reinventar las atracciones turísticas existentes, reponerlas como “iconos” sobre el mercado. A pesar de las limitaciones con las cuales la valorización de Igoudar está confrontada, diferentes enfoques posibles serán discutidos.

• TIGLIFET ABDELALI
• FARIDA BOUAACHRAOUI

THE ARTICLE TALKS ABOUT NEW INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND THE PATRIMONY, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES RELATED TO PATRIMONY ESPECIALLY IN THE REGION OF MY STUDY.
THE ETHNOLOGICAL APPROACH USED TO COLLECT THE INFORMATION CONSTITUTES THE BASIS OF THE INVENTORY AND IS CHARACTERIZED BY A METHOD THAT INVOLVES DIRECT OBSERVATION AND ORAL SURVEY IN THE FIELD. THE SITUATION OF THE HERITAGE OF THIS AREA IS STILL UNDER DEVELOPMENT, DUE TO SEVERAL ELEMENTS. PARMIS THESE ELEMENTS THE LACK OF A WILL FOR THE RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS HERITAGE TO INTEGRATE THE TIC IN THE VALUE PROCESS OF THIS HERITAGE.

• TARIK BOULACHIOUKH
• JAMILA SAIDI

De par sa situation stratégique à l’interface entre l’Afrique du Nord et l’Europe, la ville « cosmopolite » de Tanger fût au cours des siècles terre de rivalités et d’échanges. Point de passage quasi obligé des colons (français et espagnols) et autres voyageurs européens, l’intérêt particulier pour le tourisme s’y apparaissait au temps du protectorat (1912-1956) comme un élément de prospérité économique et de pacification sociale. Or, après des décennies de vie excentrée, soit de 1923 à 19563, la ville fût intégrée peu à peu dans le nouvel Etat-Nation, et son renouveau s’accompagnait d’une véritable inflexion d’investissements industriels et touristiques, due en grande partie au soutien financier et institutionnel de l’Etat. Dans une conduite de mimétisme de modèles exogènes, le tourisme s’est érigé alors comme une priorité de développement local que certains responsables l’on assimilée à une source indispensable de devises et d’emplois, mais apparemment dénuée de durabilité et sans grand succès. Certes, l’activité touristique a maintenu la cadence de croissance entamée depuis la promulgation du plan triennal (1965-1967), mais c’est bien l’essor du tourisme balnéaire de masse, de préférence résidentielle, et la domination du modèle urbano-industriel qui sont remis en cause par les différents types de conflits d’usage et les pressions qui en pèsent sur l’espace côtier de la ville. À vrai dire, ce couplage dit stratégique, entre tourisme et industrie, a eu pour effet un recours accru aux ressources tels que le foncier, l’espace littoral et l’eau. Qu’en est-il donc des conséquences résultant de la perte des ressources touristiques du système côtier alors que les aménagements touristiques ne cessent de se creuser en dépit des effets avérés des pollutions et des pressions qui s’y exercent ? Les nouvelles pratiques d’acteurs et professionnels n’ont-elles pas abouti à l’impasse en ce qui concerne la durabilité de cette destination ? Dans cette lancée d’interrogations, nous nous pencherons alors sur la manière dont ces appropriations révèlent de différents paradoxes d’aménagement urbain, et ce dans un contexte de multiplicité des politiques sectorielles et d’urbanisation accélérée du milieu littoral.

• KHALID BENAMARA
• MOHAMED AIT NACER
• MANAR ALAOUI HASSANI ATLAS
• SAID CHAKOUK

The corporate social responsibility for the Society for the Development and Promotion of Taghazout Resort (SAPST) implies for a destination such as Agadir to identify and evaluate the economic, social and environmental impacts of the development of tourism activities in this area. However, the voluntary membership of this company is far from being obvious and mechanical because it is based on a paradox: how to reconcile the satisfaction of the needs of stakeholders and the improvement of economic performance? To answer this issue of interaction between CSR and performance, we will try to identify all the costs and benefits of the CSR strategy implemented by this company and to propose a typology of these costs and benefits.

• YOUSSEF EL AZYZY

The influence that the TripAdvisor Hotels Ranking has on tourists when deciding where to stay is recognized in both the academic and business world. Despite the large number of authors who have analysed this application from multiple angles, our work focuses on an aspect that is still little studied: The temporal evolution of the ranking. In October 2015 we started this work with the mining of hotels classification in in different Moroccan cities. In May 2018 we extracted again the rankings, comparing the evolution over time of the classifications of more than 1000 Moroccan hotels to answer among others the following questions: How does the ranking change over time? The best hotels in 2017 remain the same in 2018? Are there big jumps in the standings? Are Changes in ranking similar in all the cities? How long can take a hotel get to be among the best in the city?
The results obtained indicate that TripAdvisor, because of its mode of operation and its own way of establishing hotel evaluations, has been exceeded with respect to its ranking system which requires a change of algorithm.

• BRAHIM BENBBA
• EL BAKKAL ABRAHAL
• YOUNES OUBAIH

Este trabajo trata de estudiar la naturaleza de la relación entre la cooperación de los actores turísticos en la forma de un clúster y el atractivo turístico de sus territorios, a través, en primer lugar, de la presentación de una revisión de literatura que aborda las diferentes facetas de esta cuestión, y en segundo lugar, un estudio exploratorio cualitativo de los interesados en el turismo en la ciudad de Tánger, con el fin de evaluar la contribución del trabajo cooperado de los actores en la forma de un clúster para la mejora de el atractivo turístico de la ciudad de Tánger.

• OUAFAE ZEROUALI OUARITI
• HICHAM MOHAMMED HAMRI

Today the market of sub-Saharan Africa and the role it occupies in the economic and tourist development of the Morocco destination is undeniable. Through its diversity, the sub-Saharan market allows the sector to benefit even more curious visitors and to drain revenue with significant value in terms of income. By adding that this market makes it possible to embellish the image of Morocco. Another good thing that this market can do is raise the awareness of all the stakeholders of the importance of the development of the resources of the kingdom, these cultural and social relations. Thus Morocco must make efforts to better understand these tourists, know their expectations and their needs to better adapt to this new demand. n this research we will focus mainly on the conceptual foundations of the relationship between Morocco and sub-Saharan Africa, namely: the situation of Morocco vis-à-vis the sub-Saharan market and relations between the two countries. It will also cover the presentation of the interest, the objectives, the problematic, the hypotheses and the methodology of the study carried out. Finally, this research will be an opportunity to analyze the results and present improvement actions for the destination Morocco.

• ABDELLAH ABIL

The present article aims at analyzing the textual components of a tourist brochure proposed by the delegation of the tourism of Agadir and which by means of texts concise and of varied images give generally, a front visual taste, and awaken the curiosity and the interest of the tourists of the tourist destination to be visited.We focused a lot on the textual component of the tourist brochure and the developing elements in the studied brochure. In other words, we wanted to know to what extent they they convey an emotional and attractive sensewith the aim of persuading the tourists to choose the destination to be visited.

• ABDELAZIZ BENAMI

El marketing territorial es el principio de cualquier política de desarrollo global que se ha impuesto como una solución apropiada para asegurar el desarrollo transversal que por su parte asegura a las políticas publicas toda la pertinencia, eficiencia y pro-actividad que favorecen el éxito.
De hecho, el desafío fundamental para que un territorio se desarrolle realmente es el drenaje y la retención lo máximo posible; tanto el capital, las habilidades y los proyectos. Sin embargo, para lograr esto, el enfoque apropiado es la movilización concertada de todos los agentes que actúan dentro del territorio, para así optimizar su atractivo y competitividad.
El presente proyecto de comunicación tiene como objetivo principal arrojar luz sobre el caso de Tánger, un territorio en el que se llevaron a cabo varias acciones de marketing territorial recientemente; el cuál pretende seguir luchando para satisfacer las expectativas deseadas para esta ciudad, incluyendo por la máxima autoridad del Reino: SM el Rey Mohammed VI.

• JIHANE HAFIANE
• ABDERRAHIM BENLAKOUIRI
• YOUSSEF ATARGUINE
• ALLAL ACHABA

A pesar de su importancia y de ser un campo de estudio que ha interesado a varias disciplinas de las humanidades y las ciencias sociales, el turismo y especialmente los destinos turísticos, aún adolece de una insuficiencia de conceptualización e investigación científica más particularmente de las ciencias administrativas. De hecho, tanto el turismo como los destinos turísticos que constituyen las unidades básicas y la clave de su éxito, a pesar del evidente interés que se les otorga por la investigación científica y más particularmente por la gestión, sigue siendo que hasta hoy su conceptualización sigue siendo problemática y todavía no existe un corpus teórico y un modelo universal de gestión de destinos turísticos. El propósito de este artículo es echar un vistazo, a partir de una revisión de la literatura de gestión, sobre destinos turísticos como objeto de investigación de las ciencias de la gestión, buscando por un lado identificar su conceptualización problemática y por otro lado, identificar las peculiaridades de su gestión y los diferentes enfoques y teorías que se han movilizado para aprehenderlo.

• NGAPGUE JEAN NOËL

The highlands of western Cameroon abound with innumerable massifs with great natural diversities but these eco-tourist potentials are unexploited for tourist purposes. A descent on Mount Mbapit one of the great massifs representative of the geomorphological and edaphic characteristics of the mountains of the region shows that the tourist activity is reduced to the simple excursions of the pupils and the visits of the researchers. Yet the mountain long traveled by animals is now highly sought after by farmers to carry crops which can constitute a significant tourist side. Mbapit which contains a péléenne needle, a crater lake, piles of differentiated lavas, thermal springs which tumble down slopes also offer numerous natural tourist attractions. However, the developments undertaken on the site strongly, very limited do not attract visitors and do not promote the development of mountain tourism activities. The exploitation of the massif in tourist purposes requires consequent investments susceptible to make of the mountain a place of interest desired and looked for by the foreigners in lack of natural sensation.

• EL BAKKAL ABRAHAL

Al nivel de todo destino turístico, la combinación de las condiciones necesarias para un desarrollo sostenible se revela hoy inevitable. En Marruecos, al nivel de la región Tanger-Tétouan-Al Hoceima, varias soluciones son puestas actualmente al debate para asegurar un desarrollo sostenible de esta región, transformando sus potencialidades turísticas en triunfos a este respecto.
Es en el marco que llevamos un estudio que pretendía responder a un conjunto de cuestiones, del que principalmente estuvieron: ¿ qué un desarrollo sostenible y cuales son los objetivos? ¿ Cuáles son las potencialidades de las que dispone la región Tanger-Tétouan-Al Hoceima y cómo a explotarlas con vistas a un desarrollo sostenible regional? ¿ En cuál medida los actores públicos y privados podrán poner en ejecución un desarrollo sostenible indiscutible en el futuro, particularmente en respuesta al dinamismo socioeconómico que conoce susodicha región?
La metodología adoptada para la realización de esta contribución está basada en un enfoque teórico analítico. En este marco, el enfoque analítico nos parece el más adaptado para pasar de un análisis conceptual que pretende hacer más profundizar en conocimientos en desarrollo sostenible de los territorios, al estudio de la relación estrecha entre la valorización de las potencialidades regionales y la realización de un desarrollo sostenible de la región mencionada.
Nuestra contribución se referirá en tres ejes principales: primero presentaremos el concepto de desarrollo sostenible y sus objetivos, despues analizaremos las potencialidades turísticas y la dinámica socioeconómica de la región Tánger-Tetuán-Al Hoceima y, por fin, procederemos al tratamiento del estado de los lugares y de las perspectivas del desarrollo sostenible en esta región y presentaremos sugerencias y recomendaciones.

• HASSAN REHAIMI
• LAHOUCINE ASSELLAM

El presente estudio se basó en datos espaciales y estadísticos recopilados de varias fuentes. Su objetivo es responder a las siguientes preguntas: ¿Cuáles son las fortalezas y debilidades actuales de la oferta turística en la región? ¿Cuáles son las oportunidades y amenazas para el sector? Para hacer esto, el análisis FODA (Fortalezas – Debilidades – Oportunidades – Amenazas) se eligió especialmente para ser utilizado en este estudio. Se han identificado dos categorías de potencialidades: potencialidades naturales y culturales, así como tres tipos de restricciones identificadas relacionadas con: Infraestructura, Catalizadores de la competitividad y estrategias de diversificación. El estudio hizo recomendaciones para fortalecer o reorientar las estrategias que los tomadores de decisiones deben considerar.

• M. EL AMRANI MOHAMMED

El interés en la actividad turística está motivado por el hecho de que se considera un factor de aumento de la productividad y mejora de la empleabilidad (especialmente en un contexto marcado por la incapacidad del mercado laboral). para absorber los flujos anuales de egresados). También considerada como la principal fuente de divisas y un catalizador para el desarrollo de las regiones. Con esto en mente, cada región está tratando de desarrollar una oferta territorial y crear un mejor posicionamiento para atraer mejor a los turistas e inversionistas. En lo que respecta a la región de Dakhla-Oued Eddahab, por sus diferentes potencialidades se presenta como un centro para el turismo ecológico, la logística, el comercio, la agricultura y la competitividad de la pesca. Se posiciona como un enlace entre Europa y África. Sin embargo, a pesar de la importancia de estas potencialidades turísticas y económicas, la región Dakhla-Oued Eddahab aún no puede establecerse como un destino turístico y económico atractivo y competitivo. Es en esta perspectiva que se incluye el objetivo de esta comunicación, que apunta en particular a proponer un plan de acción para una estrategia de marketing territorial y de turismo para la región de Dakhla-Oued Eddahab, y esto con el fin de asegurar una valorización de su potencial turístico y poder mejorar su atractivo y su competitividad económica.

• ABDELHAQ LAHFIDI
• M’BARK HOUSSAS

For several years, Morocco has adopted, through the vision 2020, the strategy of sustainability as a central axis for its tourism policy and this in view of its benefits to balance between economic, social and environmental requirements. Several questions arise about the relationship between sustainability and the competitiveness of tourist destinations. This article shows how the comparative advantage of sustainability affects the competitiveness of tourism. The results of the Gazelle d’Or Tourism Establishment study in Taroudant show that sustainability significantly improves both competitiveness and market share.

• MOHAMED ADRDOUR
• ABDELHAMID AIT BIHI

While the community of practitioners recognizes that tourism reduces poverty3, the link between tourism and the sustainable development of territories is not always established.
P. Chazaud (1994)4 has highlighted this link and shows that at the local level there is a need for arbitration between:
• On the one hand, “productivist” tourism, which promotes economic efficiency and assimilates its negative environmental, social and cultural externalities;
• On the other hand, “existential” tourism that enhances the inhabitants and protects their natural, social and cultural environment.
This research deals, in the case of the province of TARFAYA, with the way in which the tourism offer of this territory should make it possible to reconcile economic development, customer satisfaction and protection of the environment. Notably by looking for possible complementarities with other territories like the Canary Islands.
The objectives of the research can be summarized as follows:
• Prepare a literature review on the conditions for implementing sustainable tourism in emerging territories.
• Reflect on the complementarity of tourism offers between territories (advantages and disadvantages).
• Propose a vision of tourism development for the province of TARFAYA.
From a methodological point of view, a survey by interview and administration of questionnaires is conducted at the level of the province of TARFAYA in order to empirically verify the theoretical remarks.

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